In psychologythe theory of attachment can be applied to adult relationships including friendships, emotional affairs, adult romantic or platonic relationships and in some cases relationships Relationship attachment model inanimate objects " transitional objects ". Investigators have explored the organization and the stability of mental working models that underlie these attachment styles. They have also explored how attachment impacts relationship outcomes and how attachment functions in relationship dynamics.
Relationship attachment model Ainsworth and John Bowlby founded modern attachment theory on studies of children and their caregivers. Children and caregivers remained the primary focus of attachment theory for many years.
Then, in the late s, Cindy Hazan and Phillip Shaver applied attachment theory to adult relationships. For example, romantic or platonic partners desire to be close to one another. Adults feel comforted when their attachments are present and anxious or lonely when they are absent.
Romantic relationships, for example, serve as a secure base that help people face the surprises, opportunities, and challenges life presents.
Similarities such as these led Hazan and Shaver to extend attachment theory to adult relationships. Relationships between adults differ in many ways from relationships between children and caregivers.
The claim is that the core principles of attachment theory apply to both kinds of relationships. Investigators tend to describe the core principles of attachment theory in light of their own theoretical interests.
Their descriptions seem Relationship attachment model different on a superficial level. For example, Fraley and Shaver  describe the "central propositions" of attachment in adults as follows:.
Compare this with the five "core propositions" of attachment theory listed by Rholes and Simpson: While these two lists clearly reflect the theoretical interests of the investigators who created them, a closer look reveals a number of shared themes. The shared themes claim that:. No doubt these themes could be described in a variety of ways and other themes added to the list. Regardless of how one describes the core principles of attachment theory, the key insight is that the same principles of attachment apply to close relationships throughout Relationship attachment model lifespan.
The principles of attachment between children and caregivers are fundamentally the same as the principles of attachment between adults.
Adults are described as having 4 attachment styles: Secure, Anxious-preoccupied, Dismissive-avoidant, and Fearful-avoidant. The secure attachment style in adults corresponds to the secure attachment style in children.
The anxious—preoccupied attachment style in adults corresponds to the anxious-ambivalent attachment style in children. However, the dismissive-avoidant attachment style and the fearful-avoidant attachment style, which are distinct in adults, correspond to a single avoidant attachment style in children. The descriptions of adult attachment styles offered below are based on the relationship questionnaire devised by Bartholomew and Horowitz  and on a review of studies by Pietromonaco and Barrett.
There are several attachment-based treatment approaches that can be used with adults. Securely attached people tend to agree with the following statements: I am comfortable depending on others and having others depend on me. I don't worry about being alone or others not accepting me.
Securely attached people tend to have positive views of themselves and their attachments. They also tend to have positive views of their relationships. Often they report greater satisfaction and adjustment in their relationships than people with other attachment styles.
Securely attached people feel comfortable both Relationship attachment model intimacy and with independence. Secure attachment and adaptive functioning are promoted by a caregiver who is emotionally available and appropriately responsive to his or her child's attachment behavior, as well as capable of regulating both his or her positive and Relationship attachment model emotions.
People with anxious-preoccupied attachment type tend to agree with the following statements: They sometimes value intimacy to such an extent that they become overly dependent on the attachment figure.
Compared with securely attached people, people who are anxious or preoccupied Relationship attachment model attachment tend to have less positive views about themselves. They may feel a Relationship attachment model of anxiousness that only recedes when in contact with the attachment figure. They often doubt their worth as a person and blame themselves for the attachment figure's lack of responsiveness.
People who are anxious or preoccupied with attachment may exhibit high levels of emotional expressiveness, emotional dysregulationworry, and impulsiveness in their relationships.
People with a dismissive style of avoidant attachment tend to agree with these statements: The desire for independence often appears as an attempt to avoid attachment altogether. They view themselves as self-sufficient and invulnerable to feelings associated with being closely attached to others.
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They often deny needing close relationships. Some may even view close relationships as relatively Relationship attachment model.
Not surprisingly, they seek less intimacy with attachments, whom they often view less positively than they view themselves. Investigators commonly note the defensive character of this attachment style. People with a dismissive-avoidant attachment style tend to suppress and hide their feelings, and they tend to deal with rejection by distancing themselves from the sources of rejection e.
People with losses or other trauma, such as sexual abuse in childhood and adolescence may often develop this type of attachment  and tend to Relationship attachment model with the following statements: I want emotionally close relationships, but I find it difficult to trust others completely, or to depend on them. I sometimes worry that I will be hurt if I allow myself to become too close to other people. They commonly view themselves as unworthy of responsiveness from their attachments, Relationship attachment model they don't trust the intentions of their attachments.
Similar to the dismissive-avoidant attachment style, people with a fearful-avoidant attachment style seek less intimacy from attachments and frequently suppress and deny their feelings. Because of this, they are much less comfortable expressing affection.